Achene:- A single-seeded dry fruit, not splitting.
Acuminate:- Gradually narrowing to a point.
Acute:- Sharp, sharply pointed, the margins near the tip being almost straight.
Alar:- Flower borne in the fork of two branches of a dichasium
Anastomosing- Forming a network; vein branches uniting where they come into
Anther:- Fertile part of the stamen - the upper part which con­tains the pollen.
Anthesis:- The period during which a flower is fully open and functional.
Anthophore. plural -s. : A stalk-like extension of the receptacle on which the pistil
and corolla are borne.
Arista:- A long, bristle-like pointed axis.
Aristate:- With a bristle-like pointed axis.
Ascending:- Curving or pointing upwards.
Auriculate:- Equipped with ear-like structures, usually near the base.
Awn:- A stiff bristle-like projection, sometimes barbed or feathered. a fine bristle
ending an organ.
Axil:- The angle between the leaf and stem.
Axis:- A stem, commonly used for the main stem of a whole plant or of an
inflorescence. Also the area of the flower upon which the reproductive organs and
other ancillary organs are attached.

Bifid:- Divided at the tip in two (usually equal) parts by a median cleft
Bract:-  An organ, often small and scale-like, but sometimes leaf-­like, located
where the flower-stalk joins the stem.

Caespitose:- Tufted, growing in tight groups, the bases of individual plants
Calyx:- A collective name for the sepals - the outer whorl of organs in most flowers.
Calyx-lobe:- One of the free upper parts of the calyx which may be present when
the lower part is united into a tube.
Calyx-tube:- The tubular, often cup shaped or bell shaped, fused part of the calyx
when it is free from the corolla.
Calyx-teeth:- Tip of a calyx lobe or division.
Capitate:- Pin-headed, shaped like a head.
Campanulate:- Bell-shaped. With a tube about as long as wide and a flaring limb.
Capsule:- Dry fruit that opens when ripe. splitting from the apex to the base into
separate segments known as valves.
Capsule-teeth:- The one or two circles of small, pointed, toothlike appendages
around the opening of a capsule.
Carpophore:- The fruit bearing stalk  A prolongation of the receptacle or floral axis
bearing the carpels or ovary.
Cauline:- Borne on the stem, of the stem.
Cilia:- Marginal hairs
Ciliate:- Fringed with hairs - generally along the margin of a leaf, petal etc.
Claw:- A narrow lower part of a petal or sepal.
Connate:- 1) united, used when structures or organs of the same kind are joined
margin to margin (e.g. connate petals); 2. (of leaves) where a pair are united at the
Conical papillae:- With cone-shaped, small nipple-like projections.
Contiguous:- Sharing an edge or boundary, touching; neighboring, adjacent.
Cordate:- Heart-shaped, deeply notched so the whole base has a slight heart-
shape; sometimes used for the shape of the whole leaf, which is then ovate with a
notched base and an acute apex.
Coriaceous:- Leathery, tough.
Corolla:- A collective name for the petals.
Coronal-scale:- One of the ring of scales on th inner surface of the corolla, as at
the junction of the limb and claw in some sllene species.
Corymb:- An inflorescence with branches arising at different points but reaching
about the same height, giving the flower cluster a flat-topped appearance.
Corymbose:- Adjective of corymb.
Cuneate:- Wedge-shaped. Used especially to describe a leaf or petal base that is
narrowly triangular.
Cuneate - Cordate:- Wedge to heart-shaped.
Cylindrical:- Tube-shaped.
Cyme:- An inflorescence in which the main-axis and lateral branches are repeated,
terminated by a flower. Cymes may be regularly and symmetrically branched or
one-sided and asym­metrical.

Decumbent:- Lying along the ground, but with the tip ascending.
Dehiscent - Dehiscing:- Splitting open to release the seeds.
Depressed:- Flattened from above.
Dichasial:- Pertaining to Dichasium
Dichasium-Di (pl Dichasia):- Cyme with lateral branches on both sides of the
main axis
Divaricate:- To branch at a wide angle.

Eglandular:- Without Glands.
Eglandular:-Pubescent:- Covered with fine short soft glandless hairs.
Elliptic - Elliptical:- Forming an ellipse, widest in the middle and pointed at both
Ellipsoid:- Ellipse-shaped.
Ellipsoid- cylindrical:- Either Elliptical or cylindrical shaped
Emarginate:- Distinctly notched at the apex.
Erecto-patent:- Between spreading and erect.
Excavate:- Hollowed-out.

Fascicle:- A cluster of similar organs (e.g leaves or flowers) arising from more or
less the same point.
Fascicle:- A cluster of flowers arising more or less from the same point.
Fastigiate - Fasciculate:- (of branches) erect and closely parallel, ‘bundled’, and
coming from a common point.
Filiform:- Thread-like; slender and parallel-sided.

Glabrous:- Without hairs, hairless.
Gland:- A small rounded or oblong structure on the plant's surface containing oil or
some other liquid.
Glandular:- Covered with glands - often seen as tiny dots.
Glandular-hispid With stiff bristly glandular hairs.
Glandular pubescent:- Hairs tipped with small glands that secrete oil or some
other liquid.
Glandular-Tomentose:- Densely covered in short soft, matted glanular hairs.
Globose:- Globe-like.
Globose-Reniform:- Globe-like, rounded to Kidney-shaped.

Herbaceous:- Refers to plant organs that are green and with a leaf-­like texture.
Herbaceous perennials are plants that die to the ground each season.
Hypanthium:- Cup-shaped extension of the floral axis (i.e. the receptacle).
Hirsute:- Covered with stiff or coarse hairs.
Hispid:- With stiff bristly hairs.

Incised:-Cut rather deeply, this term is intermediate between toothed and lobed.
Incise-dentate:- Deeply toothed.
Indehiscent:- Fruits that do not split open to release their seeds. not splitting open
to release their seeds.
Inflated:- Swollen, like a bladder.
Inflorescence:- The flowering branch or branches, flowers and bracts above the
uppermost leaves on a stem.
Internode:- The portion of a stem between two nodes.

Jaculator:- Hook-like process on the stalk of a seed that helps in dispersal.
Keel - Keeled:- A prominent longitudinal ridge like the keel of a boat.

Lamina:- Blade. the expanded part of the leaf or petal.
Lanceolate:- Lance-shaped: more or less elliptical but broadest below the middle.
Lenticular:- Discoid with a convex lens-shape.
Ligulate:- 1) Strap-shaped, narrow and with parallel sides; 2) with a ligule;  3) (in
Compositae inflorescences) denoting the presence of florets with a ligule
Lingulate:- Tongue-shaped.
Linear:- Narrow and parallel-sided. Narrow and much longer than wide, with parallel
Linear - Lanceolate:- Narrow, parallel-sided to lance-shaped:
Linear - Oblong:- Narrow, parallel-sided to rectangular with rounded ends.
Linear - Spatulate:- Narrow, parallel-sided to paddle-shaped.
Linear - Subulate:- Narrow, parallel-sided to awl-shaped.
Loculicidal:- Capsule splitting into the cells, along the midrib or dorsal suture.

Membranous:- Thin and dry, often opaque or transparent - like a membrane.
Merous:- Having a specified number of parts: e.g. "pentamerous" = 5-merous
Midvein:- The vein in the center of a leaf.
Monochasial- Inflorescence with a terminal flower and one bracteole subtending a
lateral flower.
Mucro:- A sharp terminal point.
Mucronate:- Of or having a mucro; ending abruptly in a sharp point.
Mucronulate:- ending abruptly in a very short, stiff straight point.
Muticous:- Lacking a point or awn; blunt.

Node:- Points on the stem where the leaves arise; often regularly spaced.

Oblanceolate:- Inversely lanceolate, broadest towards the apex and tapering to
the stalk.
Oblanceolate - Spatulate:- Inversely lanceolate to Paddle-shaped.
Oblong:- Rectangular with rounded ends - used to describe a leaf or petal shape.
Obtuse:- Blunt, not pointed, ending in an angle of between 90 - 180
Obconic - Obconical:- In the form of an inverted cone.
Obcordate:- Heart-shaped, with the point of attachment at the narrow end.
Orbicular:- Rounded; as wide as long.
Orbicular-Reniform:- Rounded to kidney-shaped.
Ovoid:- Egg-shaped
Ovary:- The female organ containing the ovules.
Ovate:- Broad and rounded at the base and tapering toward the end.
Ovate-Lanceolate:- Broad and rounded at the base and tapering toward the end.
to Narrow, parallel-sided to lance-shaped:

Panicle:- A loose, branching cluster of flowers.
Paniculate:- Arranged or branched in the manner of panicles; borne in panicles.
Papillae:- Small nipple-like projections.
Papillose - Papillate:- Covered with papillae. covered  with small nipple-like
Patent:- Spreading.
Pedicel:- The stalk of an individual flower.
Peduncle:- The stalk of an inflorescence or partial inflorescence.
Perianth:- Outer region of a flower. The perianth includes all the structures
surrounding the reproductive organs and usually consists of an outer whorl of
sepals (calyx) and an inner whorl of petals (corolla).
Pericarp:- The part of a fruit enclosing the seeds that develops from the wall of the
Perigynous:- When the sepals, petals and stamens are carried up around the
ovary on a hypanthium.
Petal:- The inner perianth segments when they clearly differ from the outer.
Petal-limb:- An enlarged upper part of the petals
Petiolate:- Having a leaf stalk.
Petiole:- The leaf-stalk.
Pinnatifid:- Divided into lobes which extend from about a quarter to half-way
towards the midrib.
Procumbent:- Trailing along the ground but not rooting.
Pruinose:- Covered with a waxy frost-like powder or bloom, as on a plum.
Puberulent:- Minutely pubescent, the hairs hardly visible to the naked eye.
Pubescent:- Covered with fine short soft hairs, downy.
Pyriform:- Shaped like a pear, Pear-shaped.

Radially striate:- Having lines, bands, or grooves. going around the circumference
of an object.
Reflexed:- Bent abruptly backwards.
Reniform:- Kidney-shaped, shaped like a kidney.
Reticulate:- Netted, net-veined, when the smallest veins of a leaf are inter-
connected like the meshes of a net.
Retuse:- Terminating in a round end, the centre of which is depressed.
Rhizome:- An underground or surface stem, often thick and swollen.

Scabridulous:- Slightly rough.
Scarious:- Thin and dry, paper-like, membranous not green.
Scutate:- (of scales), Shield-shaped, round and slightly bulging.
Sepal:- A member of the outer perianth whorl in most flowers. The sepals
collectively make up the calyx.
Spatulate:- Paddle-shaped, oblong with an extended basal part.
Stamen:- Pollen-producing reproductive organ, typically consisting of a stalk called
the filament and an anther.
Stipule:- An outgrowth typically borne on both sides (sometimes on just one side)
of the base of a leafstalk (the petiole).
Stolon:- A creeping stem, below or along the ground; often produced from the base
of stems.
Striate:- With parallel longitudinal grooves.
Subacute:- Having a tapered but not sharply pointed form.
Subglabrous:- Almost without hairs.
Subobtuse:- Leaf tip or base: Somewhat blunted; neither blunt nor sharp.
Subsessile:- Almost devoid of a stalk. almost stalkless.
Subtended:- (of a bract, stem, etc), to have (a bud or similar part) growing in the
Subtending:- Immediately adjacent to; to have another organ in its axil.
Subulate:- Awl-shaped, tapering from the base to the apex,
Succulent:- Plants with parts that are thickened, fleshy, and engorged, usually to
retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.

Testa:- Outer coat of the seed.
Triangular-ovate:- Egg-shaped, with the broader end at the base.
Tomentose:- Densely covered in short soft, matted hairs.
Truncate:- Ending abruptly - as if cut off. in more or less a straight line.
Tubercle:- A small rounded projection or protuberance, wart-like projections.
Tuberculate:- With small, wart-like projections.

Umbilicate:- Navel-like, with a small central hollow or depression.

Villose, villous:- Covered with long, shaggy hairs.
Viscid:- Sticky.