General description:- Herbs or shrubs.

Leaves:- Alternate, opposite or arranged in a rosette (rosulate), exstipulate.

Flowers:- Small (florets), hermaphrodite, functionally male, female, or sterile, in
terminal or axillary, usually stalked (pedunculate) capitula, surrounded by an
involucre of bracts. Capitula solitary or in corymbose, less frequently racemose,
inflorescences. Calyx-limb (pappus) absent or represented by a corona, auricle,
scales, stiff hairs (setae) or simple or softly feathered (plumose) hairs. Corolla of 3
main types: (a) tubular, with (3-)4- to 5-lobed limb, actinomorphic or rarely weakly
zygomorphic; (b) tubular, with a 2-lipped limb; (c) ligulate, with a short tube and the
limb prolonged on one side into a usually 3- or 5-toothed ligule; female florets
sometimes without a corolla or with a thread-like (filiform) corolla. Stamens 5,
united with the petals (epipetalous); anthers usually united (connate) into a tube
round the style, often abruptly ending in a long tail-like or appendage tip (caudate)
or arrowhead-shaped (sagittate) at base and with apical appendages. Ovary inferior,
single-celled (1-locular); ovule solitary, basal, bent parallel to its stalk so the
micropyle is close to the point of funiculus attachment (anatropous); style solitary,
with 2 stigmatic branches.

Fruit:- A cypsela (achene).

The length of the involucre is measured from the base of the capitulum. Pappus-
hairs are described as plumose when the length of the branches is at least 3 times
the diameter of the main hair but much shorter than it.

GENUS:- ACHILLEA

General description:- Perennial herbs.

Leaves:- Entire to 3-pinnatifid, alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula usually small, pedunculate, rarely shortly so. Involucral bracts in
few rows, the outer somewhat shorter than the inner, with a thin and dry (scarious)
margin. Receptacle convex or conical; scales present. Outer florets tongue-shaped
(ligulate), female, the ligules more or less with three teeth (3-dentate), spreading
(patent) or rarely short and erect. Inner florets hermaphrodite, 5-lobed, white, yellow
or pink. Corolla-tube compressed.

Fruit:- Achenes compressed, oblong or obovate; pappus absent.

Key features:-
1) Receptacular scales present.
2) Ligules white, purplish or yellow.
3) Capitula small, usually in corymbs.
4) Achenes strongly compressed; less than 5 mm, usually elongate, not woody.

GENUS:- ADENOPHORA - EUPATORIUM

General description:- Perennial herbs or shrubs.

Leaves:- Usually opposite.

Flowers:- Capitula in terminal corymbs or panicles. Involucral bracts in few rows.
Receptacle flat or convex, without scales. All florets tubular, hermaphrodite, 5-lobed
or -dentate, white, pink or purplish.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong or spindle-shaped (fusiform), 5-angled, truncate at apex;
pappus hairs in 1 row, denticulate.

Key features:-
1) Florets pinkish; ligules absent.

GENUS:- AMBROSIA

General description:- Annual or perennial herbs.

Leaves:- Mostly opposite.

Flower:- Capitula unisexual, inconspicuous; male hemispherical, drooping, in
terminal, ebracteate racemes; female in axils of the uppermost leaves, each with a
single floret. All florets tubular.

Fruit:- Achene enclosed by the nut-like involucre; pappus absent; involucre usually
with small spines or tubercles near apex.

GENUS:- ANDRYALA

General description:- Annual or perennial herbs.

Stems:- Usually solitary, rarely numerous.

Leaves:- Entire to pinnatisect; cauline few to numerous, often more or less
amplexicaul.

Flower:- Capitula usually few to numerous, rarely solitary. Involucral bracts in 2 to
several rows. Receptacle pitted, the margins of the pits laciniate-dentate and with
cilia which are often longer than the subtending achenes, sometimes with scales
enfolding some or all the florets. Ligules yellow, the outer sometimes with a reddish
stripe on outer face.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong or obconical, truncate (rarely with a disc) at apex, with 8-10
prominent ribs; pappus of greyish hairs, falling entire.

GENUS:- ANTHEMIS Including:-
Subgen. AMMANTHUS, Subgen. ANTHEMIS,
Sect. ANTHEMIS, Sect. CHIA, Sect. COTA, Sect. HORITHIA, Sect. MARUTA,

General description:- Herbs or dwarf shrubs, more or less hairy.

Leaves:- alternate, usually divided.

Flowers:- Capitula small to medium, solitary, terminal, stalked (pedunculate).
Involucre usually more or less hemispherical; involucral bracts in several rows.
Receptacle conical, hemispherical or ovoid; scales usually present, at least in
upper part of receptacle. Outer florets usually tongue-shaped (ligulate) and female,
with compressed tube and spreading (patent), usually 2- to 3-toothed (dentate)
ligule. Inner florets hermaphrodite, tubular, 5-dentate, numerous, yellow; tube not
saccate.

Fruit:- Achenes circular in cross section (terete) or more or less compressed;
pappus absent or represented by a corona or auricle.

For the correct identification of most species mature achenes are essential.

Key features:-
1) Scales subtending at least the inner florets.
2) Capitula pedunculate, solitary.
3) Lower leaves 1- to 2-pinnatisect.
4) Achenes terete; very weakly ribbed; with a thin and dry (scarious) corona or
auricle.
5) Branches not whorled.
6) Plant softly hairy.
7) Outer involucral bracts broadly scarious.
8) Basal rosette present.
9) Corolla-tube not pouch-shaped (saccate) or spurred at base.

Subgen. AMMANTHUS

General description:- Slender annuals, with numerous simple or branched stems
from a basal rosette.

Flowers:-
1) Receptacular scales hyaline, narrowly lanceolate or linear, caducous, or absent.
2) Ligules, if present, very short, white.

Fruit:- Achenes cylindrical, curved, the peripheral persistent and with obscure ribs,
the inner caducous, distinctly ribbed.

Subgen. ANTHEMIS

General description:- Perennial or annual, rarely biennial.

Flowers:- Receptacle with Inversely ovate-wedge-shaped (obovate-cuneate) to
linear, not or scarcely rigid scales at least above.

Fruit:- Achenes not compressed, top-shaped (turbinate), subpyramidal or
obconical, orbicular or subquadrate in transverse section.

Sect. ANTHEMIS

General description:- Annual or biennial with much-branched stems.

Flowers:- Peduncles sometimes club-shaped (clavate) in fruit. Inner involucral
bracts with hyaline or sometimes brownish-scarious margin and apex. Receptacle
conical or sometimes hemispherical; receptacular scales subpersistent, ending in a
short and slightly rigid point. Ligules white, rarely yellow, pink or absent.

Fruit:- Achenes with smooth, granulate or rarely tuberculate ribs.

Sect. CHIA

Flowers:- All involucral bracts with wide dark brown or blackish scarious margin
and apex. Receptacle hemispherical or ovoid; receptacular scales caducous, thinly
membranous, brown or blackish towards apex. Ligules white.

Fruit:- Achenes with smooth ribs, those of ligules and sometimes those of the
outer tubular florets with a large hyaline auricle, the others with a short, thick
corona.

Sect. COTA
1) Annuals or biennials.
2) Involucral bracts not or narrowly brownish-edged at the hyaline margin.
3) Ligules white.
4) Achenes usually compressed and quadrangular..

Sect. HORITHIA

General description:- Usually perennial herbs or dwarf shrubs with non-flowering
shoots.

Flowers:- Peduncles not clavate in fruit. Involucral bracts with hyaline to black
scarious margin and apex. Receptacular scales usually more or less persistent,
concolorous or brown to black at apex. Ligules white, yellow or frequently absent.
Receptacle hemispherical, ovoid or shortly conical.

Fruit:- Achenes with smooth, tuberculate or often granulate, ribs, or the ribs
obsolete.

Sect. MARUTA

General description:- Annuals with branched stems.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts with pale brown or hyaline margin. Receptacle conical
to hemispherical; receptacular scales narrowly lanceolate to linear-subulate,
sometimes absent in the lower part, more or less caducous, (falling off early).

Fruit:- Achenes turbinate, circular in transverse section, with or without ribs.

GENUS:- ARCTIUM

General description:- Erect biennials, with long, stout taproots.

Leaves:- Alternate, tomentose, entire or remotely dentate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in corymbose to racemose clusters, ovoid-conical to
globose or hemispherical. Involucre glabrous or with arachnoid indumentum; bracts
numerous, imbricate, subulate, with appressed bases, the outer long, rigid, patent,
with hooked apices. Receptacle flat, with numerous, rigid, subulate scales. Florets
tubular, hermaphrodite, purple or white. Anthers acuminate above, sagittate below.
Style swollen at base, the branches cuneate.

Fruits:- Achenes oblong, compressed, rugose; pappus-hairs scabrid, golden-
yellow, free to base.

Specific limits within this genus cannot be clearly defined, each species showing
great variation in hairiness of leaves and capitula length of peduncles, and colour of
capitula and florets. All taxa are interfertile and, although they are normally
autogamous, outbreeding sometimes occurs. This has resulted in innumerable
intermediates which are fully fertile and breed true from seed.

Key features:-
1) Inner bracts not white or pink
2) Outer bracts hooked at the apex.

GENUS:- ARCTOTHECA

General description:- Annual or perennial herbs, often woody at the base.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire to lyrate-pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary, axillary, pedunculate. Involucral bracts imbricate, in
several rows, free. Receptacle flat, alveolate, without scales. Outer florets ligulate,
sterile. Inner florets hermaphrodite; corolla 5-lobed.

Fruit:- Achenes obovoid, without ridges; pappus of a single row of 4-8 short scales.

Comments   
Arctotheca calendula is regarded as an environmental weed in Australia, its country
of origin. Though it is widely known as a very common weed of habitation (i.e.
gardens and lawns) and agricultural areas (i.e. crops and pastures) in temperate
Australia, it is also increasingly becoming a problem in natural areas (particularly in
coastal environs and in semi-arid and arid regions).

GENUS:- ARTEMISIA
Including:- Sect. ARTEMISIA

General description:- Herbs or small shrubs, frequently aromatic.

Leaves:- Alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula small, usually pendent, in racemose, paniculate or capitate
inflorescences, rarely solitary. Involucral bracts in few rows. Receptacle flat to
hemispherical, without scales, sometimes covered with stiff or coarse hairs
(hirsute). Florets all tubular.

Fruit:- Achenes obovoid, subterete or compressed, smooth, finely striate or 2-
ribbed; pappus absent or sometimes a small scarious ring.

Sect. ARTEMISIA

Flowers:- Receptacle glabrous or hirsute; outer florets female (rarely absent), with
a thread-like (filiform) perianth, the rest hermaphrodite, all fertile.

GENUS:- ASTERISCUS

General description:- Annual, sometimes perennial herbs.

Stems:- Leafy.

Flowers:- Capitula medium, terminating the branches. Involucral bracts in 2-3 rows.
Receptacle convex, with scales. Ligulate florets in 2 rows, female, yellow tubular
florets numerous. Tube compressed and sometimes with 1-2 narrow wings. Florets,
inner with a terete tube.

Fruit:- Achenes, outer more or less with three sharp angles (triquetrous) or
somewhat compressed, the remainder terete; pappus of numerous short hyaline
scales.

Key features:-
1) Pappus of numerous scales or a small corona.
2) Ligules in 2 rows.
3) Outer achenes triquetrous.
4) Corolla-tube of inner florets circular in cross section (terete).

GENUS:- ATRACTYLIS

General description:- Annual or rhizomatous perennial herbs.

Leaves:- In a basal rosette, usually also some cauline and alternate, coriaceous,
with spiny lobes or teeth.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary. Involucre bell-shaped (campanulate) to subglobose;
bracts spiny, overlapping like tiles (imbricate), the outer like a comb, very close,
narrow and parallel, divided and sub-divided (pectinate-bipinnatisect), the inner
entire, thin and dry (scarious) and with a slender apical spine. Receptacular bracts
cut into slender lobes (laciniate), scarious. Florets all hermaphrodite. Corolla purple
or purplish-pink, 5-lobed.

Fruit:- Achenes cylindrical, silky (sericeous) to covered with long, shaggy hairs
(villous). Pappus of 1-3 rows of softly feathered stiff hairs (plumose setae).

Key features:-
1) Inner involucral bracts not shiny, erect.

All species grow in open, usually dry habitats.

GENUS:- BELLIS

General description:- Small annual or perennial herbs, often scapose.

Leaves:- Alternate or basal, entire to serrate-crenate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary, pedunculate. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, subequal,
herbaceous. Receptacle conical to nearly flat; scales absent. Outer florets ligulate,
female; ligules entire or subentire, spreading (patent), white, often tinged with
purplish-crimson. Inner florets 4- or 5-lobed, yellow; corolla-tube bell-shaped
(campanulate).

Fruit:- Achenes compressed, with thickened margin; pappus absent, rarely
represented by a ring of very short bristles.

In several species the development of the stem varies greatly with environmental
conditions; normally scapose species can show well-developed leafy stems in
damp, shady habitats, and the opposite tendency can be seen under the influence
of drought or heavy grazing.

Key features:-
1) Ligules much shorter than involucral bracts.
2) Pappus without long hairs.
3) Leaves not pinnatifid to pinnatisect
4) At least the achenes of the ligulate florets strongly compressed.

GENUS:- BELLIUM

General description:- Small, annual or perennial herbs.

Leaves:- Basal, alternate or subverticillate, petiolate, entire.

Flowers:- Capitula small, solitary, pedunculate. Involucral bracts in one row,
herbaceous or partly scarious. Receptacle hemispherical to conical; scales absent.
Outer florets ligulate, female; ligules entire or subentire, white, sometimes tinged
with red beneath. Inner florets 4- or 5-lobed, yellow; corolla-tube campanulate.

Fruit:- Achenes slightly compressed, pubescent; pappus of an outer ring of 4-6(-10)
hyaline scales ?- as long as the achene and an inner ring of the same number of
bristles as long as the achene or longer.

Key features:-
1) Scapes without numerous purplish scales.
2) Ligules in 1 row; white, at least above.
3) Pappus of mixed hairs and scales.

GENUS:- BIDENS

General description:- Annual or perennial herbs.

Leaves:- Opposite, entire to 2-pinnatisect.

Flowers:-
1) Capitula solitary, usually pedunculate.
2) Involucral bracts in 2 rows, the
3) Outer involucral bracts usually herbaceous and often leaf-like.
4) Inner involucral bracts membranous, often with a scarious margin.
5) Receptacle flat or slightly convex, with scales.
6) Ligulate florets usually absent, rarely in 1 row, sterile.
7) Tubular florets hermaphrodite.

Fruits:-
1) Achenes obovoid-oblong or linear, compressed or somewhat 4-angled, usually
with setose margins.
2) Pappus of 2-5,
3) Setae, usually retrorsely hispidulous or aculeate.

GENUS:- CALENDULA

General description:- Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base,
often glandular and aromatic.

Leaves:- Alternate, simple.

Flowers:- Inflorescence sometimes branched. Involucral bracts in 1-2 rows, linear,
narrowing gradually to a point (acuminate), subequal, with a narrow thin and dry
(scarious) margin. Receptacle flat, without scales. Capitula medium. Outer florets
ligulate, yellow or orange, female, fertile. Inner florets tubular, yellow, orange, brown
or violet-purple, functionally male. Anthers sagittate-caudate; filaments free.

Fruit:- Outer achenes with a narrow beak, sometimes cymbiform, or 3-winged;
inner smaller, strongly curved like a scythe (falcate) or almost ring-shaped
(annular), with small, wrinkled wart-like projections (tuberculate-rugose) on dorsal
surface, usually unwinged; pappus absent.

Key features:-
1) Receptacular scales absent.
2) Inner achenes strongly arcuate to annular, muricate on the back.

GENUS:- CARDOPATIUM

General description:- Perennial, very spiny herbs.

Leaves:- Alternate, pinnatisect.

Flower:- Capitula numerous, few-flowered, subsessile in clusters in a corymbose
inflorescence. Involucral bracts in several rows, the outer herbaceous, with marginal
and terminal spines, the inner scarious, scarcely spiny. Receptacle flat, with linear
scales shorter than the florets. Florets all hermaphrodite; corolla deeply 5-lobed.

Fruits:- Achenes densely sericeous-villous; pappus of 5-8 acuminate scales.

Key features:-
1) Pappus not a short.
2) Corona dentate corona.
3) Anthers without pinnate basal appendages.
4) Achenes densely sericeous-villous.

GENUS:- CARDUUS
Including:- Sect. LEPTOCEPHALI

General description:- Annuals to perennials with spiny-winged stems.

Leaves:- Spinose-dentate, subentire to pinnatisect.

Flowers:- Capitula depressed-globose to cylindrical; involucral bracts usually in
many rows, more or less densely overlapping like tiles (imbricate), spine-tipped,
glabrous to densely arachnoid-hairy; receptacle with dense bristles (setose).
Florets purple, rarely pink or white; corolla with slender tube and the limb with 1
lobe more or less longer than the others. Anthers sagittate, with slender, entire or
lacerate basal appendages. 

Fruit:- Achenes 3-10 mm, glabrous, smooth or with 5-10 ribs; pappus of many rows
of setae which are united at base into a ring, unequal, the inner the longest.

Key features:-
1) Leaves usually uniformly coloured above.
2) Inner involucral bracts acute or with a simple apical spine.
3) Receptacle with setae.
4) Pappus-hairs in 2 or more rows; innermost row longer than the outer.
connate into a ring at base.
5) Achenes terete.
6) All florets hermaphrodite.

Sect. LEPTOCEPHALI

Capitula oblong or cylindrical, deciduous when ripe. Corolla-tube widened above into
an ellipsoid cup 1-15(-2) mm.

GENUS:- CARLINA
Including:- Subgen. CARLINA

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base.

Leaves:- Alternate or basal, entire to deeply pinnatisect, usually with spinose-
dentate margins.

Flowers:- Capitula sessile to shortly pedunculate, solitary or in cymose, often
corymbose inflorescences. Receptacle flat, with scales and sometimes also with
bristles, the scales divided at the apex, or almost to the base, into linear segments.
Involucral bracts in several rows, the outer usually similar to the upper leaves, the
inner entire, scarious, shining, rigid, radiating when dry. Florets all hermaphrodite;
corolla 5-lobed; anthers caudate.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, hairy; pappus of a ring of plumose hairs, usually united into
groups at the base.

Key features:-
1) At least some achenes with plumose pappus-hairs.
2) Inner involucral bracts shiny, radiating when dry and simulating ligules.
3) All involucral bracts without an apical appendage.

Measurements of the diameter of capitula refer to the florets only and exclude the
involucral bracts. Measurements of leaves include the spines.

Subgen. CARLINA

General description:- Annual to perennial. Flowering or fruiting only once and then
dying (monocarpic) or with subterranean stock.

Leaves:- All spiny.

Flowers:- Inner involucral bracts variously coloured.

GENUS:- CARTHAMUS

General description:- Usually spiny, branched annuals, rarely perennial and
woody at the base, with glandular and more or less villous-lanate to arachnoid
indumentum.

Leaves:- Usually pinnatifid to pinnatisect, with spiny margin.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts in many rows, imbricate, spiny, the outer leaf-like, the
inner sometimes with apical appendages. Capitula solitary on stems and branches.
Florets all hermaphrodite; corolla yellowish or violet to pinkish-purple; filaments
usually densely bearded.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong to obpyramidal, 4-angled, glabrous, the outer usually
coarsely rugose, without pappus, the inner more or less smooth, usually with a
persistent pappus of many rows of linear scales.

Key features:-
1) Dwarf shrub.
2) Leaves with a spinose-dentate margin.
3) Outer involucral bracts leaf-like.
4) Achenes glabrous.
5) At least the outer achenes without a pappus.

All species grow in dry, open habitats, principally as ruderals or weeds of cultivated
ground.
GENUS:- CATANANCHE

General description:- Annual or perennial herbs.

Stems:- Solitary or few.

Leaves:- Entire or remotely dentate, mostly basal.

Flowers:- Capitula 1-5, mostly long-pedunculate. Involucral bracts in several rows, scarious except for darker mid-vein. Receptacle flat, with long, filiform scales. Ligules blue or yellow.

Fruits:- Achenes oblong, obscurely 5-angled, 5-to 10-ribbed; pappus of 1 row of 5-7 ovate, long-aristate scales.

Key features:-
1) Achenes not beaked.
2) Involucral bracts silvery and shiny.

GENUS:- CENTAUREA Including:- 
Subgenera. CYANUS, CALCITRAPA, SOLSTITIARIA, ACROLOPHUS, LOPHOLOMA.

Sects. AEGLALOPHILA, ARENARLAE, SRHIZANTHAE, DUMULOSAE, CARDUIFORMES

General description:-
Annual to perennial herbs, rarely dwarf shrubs.

Leaves:- Undivided to divided into more than three leaflets or lobes, the divisions extending almost to the midrib (pinnatisect).

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in groups of 2-3 at apex of branches. Involucre cylindrical to globose; bracts fringed by rather broad hair-like processes (fimbriate) or spiny appendages. Inner florets hermaphrodite; outer sterile, often radiate; corolla tubular, 5(-8)-fid.

Fruit:- Achenes somewhat compressed. Pappus usually present, persistent or rarely falling off early (caducous), forming  2 or several rows of rough (scabrid) to soft-feathery (plumose) stiff hairs (setae) or oblong to linear scales; innermost row short, the setae or scales sometimes united (connate) at the base, usually differing in shape or texture from the outer; outer rows overlapping like tiles (imbricate), the inner the longest.

Descriptions of leaves refer to the lower cauline, and of appendages and fimbriae to those of the middle involucral bracts. Diameter of involucre is measured when the flower is fully open (anthesis), and is exclusive of spines

Key features:-

1) Capitula usually with many florets, not grouped into heads.
2) Receptacle not fleshy.
3) Outer involucral bracts not leaf-like.
4) Middle involucral bracts with very short, extending downwards (decurrent) irregularly lobed at the margin (lacerate) to comb-like (pectinate)- fimbriate or spinose appendage.
5)
Inner involucral bracts with a semicircular to ovate, lacerate to fimbriate apical appendage; not white or pink.
6)
Pappus absent or of simple hairs or scales, when present innermost row of pappus-hairs shorter than the outer.
7) Bracts without distinct veins on the dorsal surface.
8)
Stem freely branched.
9) Achenes hairy, with entire apex.
10) Outer florets sterile.
11) At least some leaves pinnatifid to pinnatisect, rarely entire, evenly distributed along the stem.

Sect. AEGLALOPHILA

Stems:- Very short.

Leaves:- In a basal rosette.

Flowers:- Involucre ovoid; bracts broadly ovate, leathery (coriaceous), with dorsal veins; appendages narrowly decurrent, with hyaline margin, spinose at apex.

Subgen. CYANUS

General description:-
Annual or perennial, rarely biennial.

Leaves:- Undivided to pinnatisect. Appendages distinctly decurrent, finely-toothed (denticulate) or with slender, hair-like processes (fimbriate), blunt (muticous).

Fruit:- Pappus present, rarely absent.

Subgen. CALCITRAPA

General description:-
Biennial.

Leaves:- Pinnatisect, not extending downwards (decurrent). Appendages not decurrent at base, palmate- or pinnate-spiny at apex, the apical spine much longer than the others.

Fruit:- Pappus usually present.

Subgen. SOLSTITIARIA

General description:-  Annual to perennial.

Leaves:- Usually extending downwards (decurrent); lower lobed to pinnatifid; upper entire to dentate. Appendages not or shortly decurrent at base, palmately spiny at apex, the apical spine usually much longer than the others.

Fruit:- Pappus usually present.

Subgen. ACROLOPHUS

General description:-
Annual to perennial herbs, rarely dwarf shrubs;

Stems:- Usually erect and much-branched.

Leaves:- Usually pinnatisect with narrow segments.

Flowers:- Capitula comparatively small. Bracts usually with prominent veins on the back. Appendages, if present, shortly decurrent at base, usually fimbriate, usually spiny at apex.

Fruit:- Pappus usually present.

Sect. ARENARLAE


Stems:- Herbaceous, the branches not spiny.

Leaves:- Leaf-segments not rigid or spiny.

Flowers:- Involucre usually ovoid; appendages usually spiny, not filiform and plumose-fimbriate at apex, the lower fimbriae confluent into a hyaline margin or forming auricles. Florets pink or purple, rarely yellow or lilac.

Sect. RHIZANTHAE

Stems:- Short, or absent.

Leaves:- Usually in a basal rosette.

Flowers:- Involucre ovoid; bracts ovate to oblong, with dorsal veins; appendages very narrowly extending downwards (decurrent), fimbriate or finely toothed (denticulate), spinose at apex.

Subgen. ACROLOPHUS


General description:- Annual to perennial herbs, rarely dwarf shrubs.

Stems:- Usually erect and much-branched.

Leaves:- Usually pinnatisect with narrow segments.

Flowers:- Capitula comparatively small. Bracts usually with prominent veins on the back. Appendages, if present, shortly decurrent at base, usually fimbriate, usually spiny at apex.

Fruit:- Pappus usually present.

Sect. DUMULOSAE


General description:- Dwarf shrub. Branches and leaf-segments spiny.

Flowers:- Involucre cylindrical; appendages mucronate or spinulose at apex. Florets pink, white or cream.

Subgen. LOPHOLOMA

General description:-
Perennial, rarely biennial.

Stems:- Usually erect and sparingly branched, or absent.

Leaves:- Lower usually pinnatisect; uppermost undivided.

Flowers:- Capitula comparatively large. Bracts usually without or with indistinct veins on dorsal surface; appendages usually crescent-shaped (semilunate), shortly extending downwards (decurrent), fringed with rather broad hair-like processes  (fimbriate), spiny or ending abruptly in a sharp point (mucronate).


Fruit:- Pappus present.

Sect. CARDUIFORMES

Flowers:- Involucre ovoid to globose; bracts orbicular; appendages comb-like (pectinate)-fimbriate, not covering the bracts, usually with apical spine at least 3 mm, yellow, brown or black, the margins narrowly and shortly decurrent.

Genusss: CHLAMYDOPHORA

General description:-
Annual or perennial herbs.

Leaves:-
Entire or pinnatisect, alternate.

Flowers:-
1) Capitula terminal and axillary.
2) Pedunculate.
3) Involucral bracts in 2 rows.
4) Receptacle convex; scales absent.
5) Corolla tubular, 4- to 5-lobed.
6) Florets all hermaphrodite.

Fruit:-
1) Achenes all similar, compressed.
2) Pappus an obliquely truncate or unilateral membranous corona.

Key features:-
1) Achenes subterete or variously angled.
2) Small annual; achenes stipitate.

Genus: CHONDRILLA

General description:- Biennial to perennial herbs.

Stems:- 1-5, much-branched.

Leaves:- Entire to runcinate-dentate; cauline often narrow or bract-like.

Flowers:- Capitula numerous, with fewer than 15 florets. Involucre 9-12 x 25-5 mm, cylindrical; bracts in 2 rows, the outer much shorter than the inner. Receptacle flat, without scales. Ligules yellow.

Fruit:- Achenes with numerous ribs; beak very short to longer than the body, rarely absent, usually surrounded at its base by up to 6 short scales forming a collar; pappus of numerous rows of soft, simple hairs.

Key features:-
1) Scapes branched or unbranched, usually with bracts.
2) Achenes with a collar of scales below the beak, smooth without rough protrubrances (not muricate)
3) Capitula with fewer than 15 florets.
4)
All pappus-hairs simple.
5) Involucre 25-5 mm wide.

Genus: CICHORIUM

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs.

Stems:- Usually solitary, branched.

Leaves:- Lobed the lobes extending from about a quarter to half-way towards the midrib, but not separated into distinct leaflets with the lobes pointing towards the base (runcinate-pinnatifid) or toothed (dentate).

Flowers:- Capitula numerous, terminal and axillary. Involucre cylindrical; bracts in 2 rows, the outer shorter. Receptacle more or less flat, without scales. Ligules usually blue, occasionally white.

Fruit:- Achenes obovoid, more or less angled truncate at apex; pappus of 1-2 rows of short, obtuse scales.

Key features:-
1) Receptacle without scales.
2) Ligules purple or blue.
Genus: CIRSIUM Including: Sects. CIRSIUM, ERIOLEPIS

General description:- Spiny, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely annuals.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire to pinnatisect, with spinulose margin or upper surface and usually spiny teeth or lobes.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts imbricate, often with a vitta, usually with a simple apical spine. Receptacular scales numerous, setaceous. Florets hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, purple or yellowish, rarely white. Anthers with basal appendages 03-15 mm.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, with a pouch-like swelling (gibbous), compressed, the truncate apex with a distinct, annular margin surrounding a subconical central projection; pappus of several rows of softly feathered bristly hairs (plumose setae), the inner somewhat longer than the outer and simple, often flattened, lanceolate and fringed with hairs (ciliate) towards apex, the pappus of the outermost florets often with fewer, simple setae.

Key features:-
1) Involucral bracts with simple apical spine or unarmed.
2) Pappus-hairs in several rows.
3) Achenes with transverse basal attachment-scar.

Sect. CIRSIUM

Leaves:- Without rigid setae on the upper surface.

Flowers:- Florets hermaphrodite, or the outermost functionally male or sterile. Corolla-limb 5-fid to about halfway, about as long as tube.

Fruit:- Pappus shorter than, rarely equalling, corolla.

Sect. ERIOLEPIS

Leaves:- Usually leathery (coriaceous), pinnatisect, with segments divided to base into 2 wide spreading (divaricate) lobes, with rigid, rather pungent setae on the upper surface.

Flowers:- Florets hermaphrodite or the outermost functionally male or sterile. Corolla-limb 5-fid to about halfway, about as long as tube.

Genus: COLEOSTEPHUS


General description:- Annuals

Leaves:- Simple, alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or 2-5 on branches. Involucral bracts in 2-3 rows, brownish with a narrow, scarious apical border. Receptacle plano-convex, without scales. Ligulate florets female, fertile or sterile. Inner florets hermaphrodite, tubular-campanulate, actinomorphic; corolla-tube strongly compressed at base and slightly winged.

Fruit:- Achenes all similar, cylindrical, with 8-10 more or less projecting white ribs and a basal callus. Epicarpic mucilaginous cells on some ribs and vallecular secretory canals present. Pappus prominent, oblique, sheathing or a corona, as long as or shorter than achene, sometimes absent.

Key features:-
1) Achenes all similar.
2) Pappus usually conspicuous.
3) Pappus of ligulate florets not longer than the corolla-tube.
4) Tubular florets actinomorphic.

Genus: CREPIS
Including Sects. CREPIS, ZACINTHA, BARKHOUSIA, HIERACIOIDES, ALETHOCREPIS, PTEROTHECA, NEMAUCHENES, LEPIDOSERIS.


General description:- Annual to perennial herbs.

Stems:- 1 to many, usually branched.

Leaves:- Subentire to pinnatisect or lobed.

Flowers:- Capitula 1-numerous. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer up to 3/4 (rarely 5/6) as long as the inner. Receptacle flat or convex, usually pitted, the raised margins of the pits often ciliate, rarely also with 1 or 2 rigid hairs or narrow, membranous scales between the florets. Ligules usually yellow (sometimes with a red stripe on the outer face) sometimes orange, pink, white or parti-coloured.

Fruit:- Achenes yellowish to black, uniform or of 2 or 3 kinds, with 4-35 ribs or striae, usually narrowed towards apex, sometimes beaked; pappus of 1-many rows of usually white and soft, sometimes greyish or yellow and brittle hairs.

Key features:-
1) Pappus-hairs not thickened at base;
2) Receptacular scales not enclosing the florets.
3)
Achenes smooth or weakly rugosa, all unbeaked, somewhat attenuate above;
4) Ligules not turning greenish on drying.
5) Plant without stellate hairs. 
6) Roots not tuberous.
7) Involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer clearly demarcated from the inner.

Sect. CREPIS

General description:- Pubescent or glabrescent perennials or biennials with woody taproots.

Stems:- With few to many branches.

Leaves:- Leaves, petiolate, denticulate to pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula with few to many florets. Ligules yellow, sometimes reddish-purple on outer face, rarely purplish-pink. Receptacle usually with more or less densely ciliate, rarely glabrous, pits.

Sect. ZACINTHA


General description:- More or less pubescent annuals or biennials.

Stems:- Usually divaricately branched above.

Leaves:- Lower sessile or petiolate, denticulate to lyrate-pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula many, with few to many florets. Ligules yellow, usually reddish-purple on the outer face, rarely whitish. Receptacle with glabrous or ciliate pits, or flat.

Sect. BARKHOUSIA

General description:- Annuals or rarely perennials, usually pubescent or hispid, with slender roots.

Stems:- Simple, leafless (scapose), or more or less branched.

Leaves:- Lower, usually petiolate, denticulate to 2-pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula with few to many florets, solitary or in a corymb. Ligules yellow, pink or white. Receptacle, pits fringed with hairs (ciliate) and usually a linear scale subtending each floret.

Sect. HIERACIOIDES


General description:- Rhizomatous, pubescent perennials with robust to slender stems, with few branches mostly above the middle.

Leaves:- Stalked (petiolate), lyrate-pinnatifid or entire.

Flowers:- Capitula with many florets. Ligules yellow. Receptacle with glabrous or ciliate pits.

Sect. ALETHOCREPIS


General description:- Pubescent annuals or biennials.

Stems:- Many, branched from near the base or middle.

Leaves:- Lower petiolate, denticulate to pinnate.

Flowers:- Capitula many, with few to many florets. Ligules yellow, usually reddish on outer face. Receptacle usually with ciliate pits.

Sect. PTEROTHECA

General description:- Pubescent annuals with slender roots.

Leaves:- Lower, petiolate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or few, with few to many florets. Ligules yellow, sometimes red on outer face. Receptacle with a rigid hair subtending each floret, the pits indistinct, glabrous.

Sect. NEMAUCHENES

General description:- Pubescent annuals with long, slender to robust roots.

Leaves:- Basal leaves petiolate, denticulate to pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula with many florets. Ligules yellow, usually reddish or purplish on outer face. Receptacle with ciliate pits.

Sect. LEPIDOSERIS

General description:- Pubescent perennials, biennials or annuals, usually with long woody root.

Leaves:- Basal, stalked (petiolate), denticulate to pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula with many florets. Ligules yellow, usually reddish or purplish on outer face. Receptacle pits fringed with hairs (ciliate).

Genus: CRUPINA

General description:-
Slender, erect, annual herbs, corymbosely branched above.

Leaves:- Alternate, unarmed; basal simple; cauline pinnatisect.

Flowers:- Involucre cylindrical to ovoid; bracts overlapping (imbricate), unequal, oblong-lanceolate, acute. Receptacular scales linear-awl-shaped (subulate). Florets 5-fid; inner hermaphrodite; outer sterile. Corolla purple.

Fruit:- Achenes subcylindrical to compressed, puberulent at base, covered with long, shaggy hairs (villous) towards apex, dark brown; pappus absent in the outer achenes, of 2 rows in the inner achenes, the outer with very unequal, minutely scabrid hairs, the inner with 5-10 short scales.

Key features:-
1) Middle bracts obtuse, not apiculate or spinulose at apex
2) Outer achenes without pappus; inner achenes with an outer row of unequal, scabridulous setae and an inner row of 5-10 short scales.

Genus: CYANUS Including Subgen. CYANUS, Sect. CYNARA

General description:-
Annual to perennial herbs, rarely dwarf shrubs.

Leaves:- Undivided to divided into more than three leaflets or lobes, the divisions extending almost to the midrib (pinnatisect).

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in groups of 2-3 at apex of branches. Involucre cylindrical to globose; bracts fringed by rather broad hair-like processes (fimbriate) or spiny appendages. Inner florets hermaphrodite; outer sterile, often radiate; corolla tubular, 5(-8)-fid.

Fruit:- Achenes somewhat compressed. Pappus usually present, persistent or rarely falling off early (caducous), forming  2 or several rows of rough (scabrid) to soft-feathery (plumose) stiff hairs (setae) or oblong to linear scales; innermost row short, the setae or scales sometimes united (connate) at the base, usually differing in shape or texture from the outer; outer rows overlapping like tiles (imbricate), the inner the longest.

Descriptions of leaves refer to the lower cauline, and of appendages and fimbriae to those of the middle involucral bracts. Diameter of involucre is measured when the flower is fully open (anthesis), and is exclusive of spines.

Key features:-

1) Capitula usually with many florets, not grouped into heads.
2) Receptacle not fleshy.
3) Outer involucral bracts not leaf-like.
4) Middle involucral bracts. with very shortly decurrent irregularly lobed at the margin (lacerate) to comb-like (pectinate)- fimbriate or spinose appendage.
5)
Inner involucral bracts with a semicircular to ovate, lacerate to fimbriate apical appendage; not white or pink.
6)
Pappus absent or of simple hairs or scales, when present innermost row of pappus-hairs shorter than the outer.
7) Bracts without distinct veins on the dorsal surface.
8)
Stem freely branched.
9) Achenes hairy, with entire apex.
10) Outer florets sterile.
11) At least some leaves pinnatifid to pinnatisect, rarely entire, evenly distributed along the stem.

Subgen. CYANUS

General description:-
Annual or perennial, rarely biennial.

Leaves:- Undivided to pinnatisect. Appendages distinctly decurrent, finely-toothed (denticulate) or with slender, hair-like processes (fimbriate), blunt (muticous).

Fruit:- Pappus present, rarely absent.

Sect. CYNARA

Stems:-
Present.

Leaves:- Cauline 1- to 2-pinnatifid, with lanceolate to oblong, flat, dentate to pinnatifid segments.

Flowers:- Involucre ovoid to globose; involucral bracts with a stout, pungent apical spine or an ovate to triangular, appendage ending abruptly in a sharp point (mucro).

Fruit:- Achenes not winged.

Genus: DITTRICHIA

General description:- Perennial, rarely biennial herbs or small shrubs.

Leaves:- Simple, alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in a medium to small corymbose or paniculate inflorescence. Involucral bracts imbricate, in many rows. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, without scales. Florets yellow, the outer ligulate, female, the ligule often very short. Tubular florets hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Achenes cylindrical, abruptly contracted below the pappus; pappus-hairs connate near base.

Key features:-
1) Pappus without an outer row of small, connate scales, hairs connate near base, forming a brownish cup.
2) Achene abruptly contracted at apex.

Genus: ECHINOPS Including: Sect. RYTRODES

General description:-
Perennial, rarely annual herbs.

Stems:- Erect, grooved or furrowed (sulcate).

Leaves:- 1- to 2 lobes the lobes extending from about a quarter to half-way towards the midrib (pinnatifid).

Flowers:- Capitula with 1 floret, grouped into 1 or more globose inflorescences with  basal bracts cut into slender lobes or drawn-out teeth (laciniate). Involucral bracts in 3-5 rows, with branched or simple, white bristles (setae) outside them; inner bracts linear, bordered by rather broad hair-like processes (fimbriate), of intermediate length between the shorter outer and the middle bracts. Florets hermaphrodite; corolla tubular, blue or greyish to white; anthers bluish-grey.

Fruit:- Achenes cylindrical, angled, densely hairy; pappus of free to connate, scale-like bristly-hairs (setae).

Key features:-
1) Plant usually without latex; at least the inner florets not ligulate.
2) Leaves and involucral bracts often spiny.
3) Style thickened or hairy below the branches.
4) Ligulate florets absent.
5) Capitula with 1 floret, grouped into globose heads.

All species are found in dry, often rocky habitats.

Sect. RYTRODES

Flowers:- Involucral bracts 16-34, in 4-5 rows, the inner connate to form a membranous tube.

Genus; ECLIPTA

General description:-
Annual or perennial herbs.

Leaves:- Opposite, entire or toothed.

Flowers:- Inflorescence of several small, pedunculate capitula. Involucral bracts in 2 rows. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, with scales. Outer florets ligulate, female; the inner tubular, shortly 4(-5)lobed, hermaphrodite.

Fruits:- Outer achenes triangular in section, the inner subterete; pappus absent or of few small teeth.

Genus: ERIGERON

General description:- Annual, biennial or perennial herbs.

Stems:- Flowering stems usually with long eglandular hairs, the pubescence increasing progressively from below upwards

Leaves:- Usually entire, the basal obovate-spathulate, somewhat petiolate, the cauline lanceolate to linear-lanceolate.

Flowers:-
Flowering stems with 1 to several capitula in a lax, corymbiform or elongate panicle. Ligulate florets female, usually exceeding the involucre; tubular florets yellow, either all similar, hermaphrodite or the outer florets female, filiform, the inner hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Achenes pubescent, sometimes dimorphic; pappus of hairs, or of short scales in ligulate florets and an outer row of scales and an inner row of long hairs in tubular florets.

Key features:-
1) Outer florets filiform, female.
2) Most leaves basal.
3) Florets purplish.
4)
Flowering stems leafy.
5) Ligules distinctly longer than the involucre.
6) Ligules usually in 2 or more rows, filiform.
7) Pappus-hairs in 1 row .
8)
Plant hairy, at least on the stems or involucre.
9) Leaves usually not fleshy.
10) Capitula usually 1 or few, with several rows of female florets and numerous hermaphrodite florets.

Genus: FILAGO

General description:- Tomentose to lanate annuals.

Leaves:- Alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula in axillary and terminal or basal subglobose clusters, very rarely solitary. Involucral bracts usually 15-25, often acuminate or aristate. Florets all tubular, the outer and sometimes some of the inner female, filiform, some or all of the inner hermaphrodite, or sometimes functionally male.

Fruit:- Achenes slightly compressed laterally, the outer subtended by but not enclosed in bracts; pappus usually present.

Descriptions of bracts refer to the middle bracts.

Key features:-
1) Clusters of capitula subglobose.
2) Involucral bracts usually not more than 25; usually acuminate, erect in fruit.
3) Pappus usually present.
4) Involucral bracts
5) Receptacle not or scarcely dilated at apex.

Most species grow in dry, open habitats, such as cultivated fields, open grassland, roadsides and sand-dunes.

Genus: GALACTITES


General description:- White-tomentose, annual herbs.

Leaves:- Alternate, with spiny lobes or teeth.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in corymbose cymes or clusters. Involucre ovoid; involucral bracts overlapping (imbricate), the outer and middle with a rigid, erecto-patent (between spreading and erect) apical spine. Receptacle densely hairy. Inner florets small, tubular, hermaphrodite; outer florets large, funnel-shaped (infundibuliform), sterile. Corolla purple to white.

Fruit:-
Achenes subcylindrical, striate, glabrous; pappus-hairs plumose, white.

Key features:-
1) Achenes glabrous.
2) Receptacle densely hairy.
3) Outer florets much enlarged.

Genera: ASTER - GALATELLA


General description:- Herbs, usually perennial.

Leaves:- Alternate or basal, simple.

Flowers:- Capitula small to medium, solitary or in corymbs or panicles. Involucral bracts in 2 nearly equal rows, or overlapping (imbricate) in 3-several rows with the outer much shorter than the inner. Receptacle flat or convex. Florets, outer tongue-shaped (ligulate), female or sterile, in 1 row; ligules blue, violet, purple, pink or white, sometimes absent; inner tubular, hermaphrodite, yellow, often becoming purple.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, usually compressed, more or less hairy and often glandular. Pappus-hairs somewhat rough to the touch (scabrid), whitish to yellowish or reddish, often unequal, in 1-2 indistinct rows.

Key features:-
1) Florets yellow or brownish.
2) Capitula in corymbs.
3) Involucral bracts mostly herbaceous.
4) Achenes hairy.

5) Plant not tomentose or lanate.
6) Outer florets tubular, hermaphrodite.

7) Pappus-hairs not plumose; in 2 or more rows.
8) Ligules not yellow; in 1 row, not filiform; shorter than involucre.
9) Scapose.
10) Plant glabrous.
11) Leaves fleshy.

Genus: GALINSOGA

General description:-
Annual herbs.

Leaves:- Opposite.

Flowers:- Capitula small, in dichasial cymes. Involucral bracts few, in 1-2 rows. Receptacle conical, with scales. Ligulate florets female; tubular florets hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Achenes obovoid-prismatic, the outer somewhat compressed dorsally; pappus of several scales.   

Genus: GEROPOGON

General description:- Annual, biennial or perennial herbs.

Stems:- Usually solitary, simple or sparingly branched.

Leaves:- Linear-lanceolate to linear, entire, the cauline sheathing.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or few. Involucral bracts in 1 row. Receptacle without scales. Ligules yellow or purplish.

Fruit:- Achenes fusiform, with 5-10 more or less distinct ribs, usually beaked, the beak usually with an annulus separating it from the pappus; pappus of 1 row of mostly plumose hairs, or the outer achenes with a pappus of 1 row of scabrid, rigid hairs

Genera:  GLEBIONIS

General description:- Annuals.

Flowers:- Capitula pedunculate, solitary or 2-5 on branches. Involucral bracts in 2-3 rows. Receptacle convex, without scales. Ligulate florets female. Tubular florets hermaphrodite; corolla-tube laterally expanded and 2-winged.

Fruit:- Achenes without vallecular (resin-canal) secretory canals or epicarpic mucilaginous cells, those of ligulate florets 3-angled with the ribs often winged, those of tubular florets cylindrical to cylindrical-triquetrous, ribbed, the posterior rib sometimes winged. Pappus absent.

Key features:-
1) Pappus a scarious corona or auride, or absent.
2) Outer achenes 2- to 3-winged, the inner 1-to 2-winged or unwinged; pappus absent.
3) Plant not viscid-hairy.
4)
At least some leaves 2- to 3-pinnatisect.
5) Ligules yellow, at least towards the base

Genus: HEDYPNOIS

General description:- Annuals.

Stems:- Usually many, branched.

Leaves:- Entire to dentate or lobed.

Flowers:- Capitula 1-many. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer very small. Receptacle flat, without scales. Ligules yellow, the outer sometimes with a greenish stripe on the outer face.

Fruit:- Achenes more or less cylindrical, often incurved, the outer usually partly enclosed in the involucral bracts; pappus (at least of inner achenes) of narrow, long-aristate scales, sometimes also including hairs.

Key features:-
1) Achenes 5-9 mm
Genus: HELIANTHUS

General description:- Stout annual or perennial herbs.

Leaves:- Simple, the lower opposite, the others usually alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula large. Involucral bracts overlapping (imbricate), in 2 to several rows, herbaceous. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, with scales which partly enclose the achenes. Outer florets tongue-shaped (ligulate), sterile, yellow. Inner florets hermaphrodite; corolla shortly 5-lobed.

Fruit:- Achenes somewhat compressed and angled; pappus of 2 deciduous setae and rarely some small scales.

Key features:-
1) Upper leaves not equipped with ear-like structures (auriculate) at base of petiole.
2)
Ligules yellow.
3) Leaves dentate or serrate.

Genus: HELICHRYSUM Including Sect. HELICHRYSUM, H. STOECHAS Group,
Sect. VIRGINEA


General description:- Herbs or dwarf shrubs, often lanate or tomentose.

Leaves:- Alternate, simple, entire.

Flowers:- Capitula small to medium, solitary or aggregated into compound corymbs. Involucre cylindrical-campanulate to hemispherical; involucral bracts numerous, imbricate, scarious, white or coloured at least distally. Florets yellow, all tubular, the outer usually female, the inner hermaphrodite, more numerous; rarely all hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Pappus of scabrid or shortly plumose
hairs.

Key features:-
1) Capitula solitary or corymbose, rarely in dense clusters.
2) Female florets usually few, the hermaphrodite usually numerous.
3) Involucral bracts usually bright yellow, white or red.

Sect. HELICHRYSUM

Flowers:- Capitula in a more or less compact terminal corymb; involucre about equalling the florets; bracts yellow, rarely white, erect during anthesis, the innermost the longest.

H. STOECHAS Group

General description:- Woody perennials.

Stems:- More or less densely tomentose, erect, ascending or decumbent

Leaves:- Linear, rarely spathulate; margins revolute.

Flowers:- Inflorescence of 5 to many capitula in a more or less dense cluster. Involucre globose to cylindric-campanulate or cylindrical before anthesis, shining, yellow.

Fruit:- Achenes dark brown

Sect. VIRGINEA

Flowers:- Capitula solitary, terminal, or in a more or less compact corymb; involucre much exceeding the florets; bracts white, at first erecto-patent, then patent, the middle usually the longest.

Genera: HELMINTHOTHECA Including Sect. HELMINTIA.

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs with rigid hairs, most of which have 2-4 small, hooked branches at the apex, sometimes also with spines.

Stems:- Usually solitary, usually branched.

Leaves:- Sinuate-dentate to pinnatisect; cauline often more or less amplexicaul.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in several imbricate rows. Receptacle pitted, without scales. Ligules yellow, the outer often with a reddish stripe on outer face.

Fruit:- Achenes transversely muricate
between the ribs, usually narrowed at the apex or beaked; pappus of 2 rows of deciduous hairs, the inner softly feathered (plumose), the outer plumose or simple, the outer achenes rarely with short thin and dry (scarious) pappus.

Key features:-
1) Achenes not compressed.
2) Spines on leaves bulbous based.
3) Pappus of 2 rows of deciduous hairs.
4) Plant hispid.

Sect. HELMINTIA. Includes the species, H. echioides.

Outer involucral bracts ovate to ovate-lanceolate, wider than inner.

Genus; HIERACIUM Including: H. schmidtii group.

General description:- Perennial herbs.

Stems:- 1-numerous.

Leaves:- Entire to deeply dentate, rarely lobed, the basal usually rosulate.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts in several irregularly imbricate rows, linear-lanceolate. Receptacle without scales, flat, pitted; margins of the pits shortly dentate to fimbriate-dentate. Ligules usually yellow (sometimes with a red stripe on outer face), rarely reddish, green or white.

Fruit:- Achenes 10 to 13-ribbed, narrowly obconical, never beaked. Pappus of 1 or 2 rows of unequal, brittle, white to pale yellowish-brown hairs.

Key features:-
1) Achenes obconical.
2) Usually at least some part of plant with stellate hairs.
2)
Rhizomes thick, never bearing tubers.

H. schmidtii group.

Stems:- 10-40(-50) cm, with few to numerous simple eglandular hairs throughout and numerous, sometimes dense stellate hairs and few to numerous glandular hairs above.

Leaves:- Thick, rarely spotted, with numerous rigid simple eglandular hairs on the margin and usually also above, with numerous, soft simple eglandular hairs beneath, with few to many stellate hairs beneath and sometimes also above, and sometimes with minute glandular hairs on the margin; basal 30-110 x 10-50 mm, elliptical, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, sometimes oblong-lanceolate, obtuse to acute, subentire to deeply dentate, the outer rounded to truncate at base, the inner cuneate or attenuate into a long petiole; cauline 0-1(-2), like the inner basal, often shortly petiolate, often bract-like.

Flower:- Capitula (1-)2-12(-18); peduncles usually long, straight, with dense stellate hairs, numerous, sometimes dense glandular hairs and often a few simple eglandular hairs. Involucre 9-12(-14) x 9-14 mm; bracts narrow, acute, with few to numerous stellate, glandular and simple eglandular hairs.

Genus: HYMENONEMA

General description:- Perennial herbs.

Stems:- Solitary to few, branched.

Leaves:- Pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula few. Involucral bracts in several imbricate rows; margins scarious. Receptacle pitted, with scales near the margin. Ligules yellow.

Fruits:- Achenes 5-angled, with rigid, appressed hairs, the marginal enfolded within the inner involucral bracts (or bract-like scales); pappus of rigid, subplumose hairs and scales in 2-3 rows, or sometimes only of scales.

1) At least the inner achenes with a pappus of 10-20 scales or hairs.

Genus: HYOSERIS

General description:- Annual or perennial herbs.

Stems:- Several, simple.

Leaves:- All basal, divided into lobes that extend from about a quarter to half-way towards the midrib (pinnatifid).

Flowers:- Capitula solitary. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer much shorter than the inner. Receptacle flat, without scales. Ligules yellow, the outer sometimes with a purplish stripe on outer face which turns greenish when dry.

Fruit:- Marginal achenes compressed, the median compressed and winged, the inner terete or compressed and winged; pappus of rigid hairs and scales, or only of scales.

Key features:-
1) Pappus entirely of simple hairs, or scales, or both.
2) At least some achenes with pappus partially or entirely of scales.

Genus: HYPOCHOERIS

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs.

Stems:- Solitary to few, usually branched.

Leaves:- Usually all basal, entire or sinuate-dentate to pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula 1-few. Involucral bracts in 1-several overlapping (imbricate) rows. Receptacle flat, with numerous thin, dry (scarious) scales. Ligules yellow, the outer sometimes with a greenish or reddish stripe on the outer face.

Fruit:- Achenes more or less cylindrical, at least the inner usually beaked; pappus of 1-2 rows of rough (scabrid) or plumose rigid hairs sometimes dilated at the base, or rarely of fimbriate scales.

Key features:-
1) Outer involucral bracts not enfolding achenes, not spreading (patent) in fruit.
2) Achenes not compressed, beaked.
3) Receptacle with scales, at least near the margin.
4) At least some pappus-hairs plumose.
5)
At least some achenes with a pappus of hairs or scales.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Genus: INULA
Including:  I. CANDIDA
Group

General description:- Perennial, rarely biennial herbs or small shrubs.

Leaves:- Simple, alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in a corymbose or paniculate inflorescence. Involucral bracts imbricate, in many rows. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, without scales. Florets yellow, the outer ligulate, female, the ligule often very short. Tubular florets hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Achenes angled, not abruptly contracted below the pappus. Pappus-hairs simple, free.

1) Pappus-hairs equal, free at base.
2) Achene not contracted at apex

I. CANDIDA Group

General description:- Usually densely white-tomentose or -lanate perennials.

Leaves:- Lower lanceolate to orbicular-ovate, the upper more or less wedge-shaped (cuneate) at base.

Flowers:- Capitula medium; involucre hemispherical to almost cylindrical. Ligules shorter than or slightly exceeding the involucre.

Fruit:- Achenes c. 2 mm, hairy; pappus about twice as long as achene, with 10-15 setae.

Genus: JACOBAEA

General description:- Herbs or dwarf shrubs with alternate leaves.

Leaves:- Not or scarcely sheathing at the base.

Flowers:- Capitula in corymbs, more rarely solitary; involucral bracts in one row, sometimes with shorter supplementary bracts at the base of the capitulum. Receptacle flat, without scales. Outer florets usually ligulate and female; inner florets hermaphrodite, tubular, yellow.

Fruit:- Achenes usually more or less cylindrical, ribbed; pappus usually present, of simple or denticulate (rarely sub-plumose) hairs.

The leaf-shape of many species is very variable and identification on this character alone is unreliable. In the descriptions leaf-measurements include the petiole and measurements of diameter of capitulum include the ligules at anthesis.

Genus: KLASEA


General description:- Perennial herbs with unarmed leaves.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or 2-many in a paniculate, rarely a compact, corymbose inflorescence. Usually with all florets hermaphrodite, rarely bearing only female or only bisexual flowers (gynodioecious) or more or less unisexual (dioecious). Involucral bracts usually without appendages. Florets tubular; anther-appendages short or absent.

Fruit:- Achenes glabrous. Pappus of several rows of free, finely serrulate or plumose hairs.

Key features:-
1) Pappus-hairs free.
2) Pappus not twisted.
3) Filaments glabrous and smooth
4) Cauline leaves deeply pinnatifid.

5) Achenes with oblique lateral attachment-scar.
6) Capitula not more than 40(-50) mm.

Genus: LACTUCA
Including: Sects. PHOENIXOPUS, LACTUCA

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs.

Stem:- Usually solitary, branched.

Leaves:- Entire to pinnatifid, often prickly.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucre cylindrical; bracts in several rows. Receptacle without scales. Ligules yellow or bluish.

Fruit:- Achenes compressed, beaked, usually with ribs; pappus of 2 equal rows of simple hairs.

Key features:-
1) Achenes with a pappus of scales or hairs; strongly compressed; beaked.
2) Pappus of 2 equal rows of hairs.

Sect. PHOENIXOPUS

Flowers:- Inflorescence a pyramidal or spike-like panicle with capitula solitary or in fascicles. Capitula with 4-8 florets.

Fruit:- Achenes with 5-11 ribs, gradually contracted into a concolorous beak not longer than body.

Sect. LACTUCA

Flowers:- Inflorescence a dense panicle of many capitula. Capitula with 10-50 florets.

Fruit:- Achenes elliptical to obovate, 1- to 9-ribbed, narrowed in the upper part, with distinct, slender, pale beak usually at least as long as body.

Genus; LAMYROPSIS


General description:- Unarmed dwarf shrubs or spiny herbs.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire to pinnatifid, usually leathery (coriaceous), almost hailess (subglabrous) above, unarmed or with stout marginal spines.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts overlapping (imbricate), rarely with resin canals (vittae), the apex usually long, rigid, patent, with a pungent spine, rarely with small spines (spinulose). Receptacular scales numerous, bristly (setaceous). Florets hermaphrodite, purple, rarely white. Anthers with basal appendages 2-4 mm.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, compressed, coriaceous, the truncate apex with a distinct, raised margin surrounding a cylindrical central projection.

Key features:-
1) Involucral bracts without an apical appendage.
2) Leaves not spinulose on upper surface or margin between the large marginal spines.
3) Achenes oblong, compressed, with distinct margin and central projection at apex.

Genus: LEONTODON
Including: Sect. LEONTODON

General description:- Annual to perennial, sometimes tuberous herbs, variously hairy but the hairs never with hooked branches.

Stems:- Solitary to numerous, scapose, sometimes branched, with numerous bracts.

Leaves:- All basal, entire to deeply pinnatisect.

Flowers:- Capitula 1-few, rarely numerous. Involucral bracts in several imbricate rows. Receptacle pitted, the pits often with dentate or ciliate margins, without scales. Ligules yellow, rarely orange, the outer often with a reddish or greyish stripe on the outer face.

Fruit:-
Achenes more or less cylindrical, sometimes beaked, longitudinally ribbed, with numerous transverse ridges or minute rigid hairs; pappus-hairs 10-40, in 1 row, plumose and with dilated bases, or in 2 rows, the inner always plumose and with dilated bases, the outer sometimes plumose and with dilated bases; marginal achenes sometimes without pappus or with a pappus of scales or hairs.

Key features:-
1) Receptacle without scales (though sometimes with rigid hairs).
2) At least some pappus-hairs plumose.
3) Pappus-hairs in 1-2 rows.

Sect. LEONTODON

Stems:- With 0-3 bracts which do not merge into those of the involucre. At least some hairs sessile and stellate, or stalked and 2- to 7-fid.

Fruit:- Pappus of 2 rows of hairs (or pappus of some marginal achenes of scales or absent).

Genus: MATRICARIA

General description:- Herbs.

Leaves:-
Alternate, irregularly 2- to 3-pinnatisect, with numerous linear segments.

Flowers:- Capitula medium, pedunculate. Involucral bracts in several rows, with a scarious margin. Receptacle hemispherical to conical, more or less solid; scales absent. Outer florets usually ligulate, female, white or rarely pink; inner florets tubular, 5-lobed, hermaphrodite, yellow.

Fruit:-
Achenes more or less compressed laterally, with 3 conspicuous, smooth ribs on the adaxial face and 1-2, rarely more, resin-glands at the apex of the abaxial face; pappus a small corona, sometimes absent.

Key features:-
1) Achenes with a transverse basal attachment scar, strongly 3-ribbed, with apical resin glands.
2)
Outer achenes neither curved nor lamellate, without an auricle.

Genus: NOTOBASIS

General description:- Spiny annuals.

Leaves:- Alternate, white-veined above, sparsely grey-arachnoid-hairy beneath, with spinulose margin and spiniform segments.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts imbricate, with a vitta and a very short apical spine. Florets hermaphrodite, purple, rarely white. Anthers with basal appendages c. 03 mm.

Fruit:- Achenes, obliquely obovoid-globose, compressed, smooth, woody, with a with a well defined margin (marginate), truncate apex; pappus of numerous plumose outer setae and an inner ring of short hairs united (connate) at the base.

Key features:-
1) Leaves spinulose on upper surface or margin and usually with spinose teeth or lobes; white-veined above.
2) Achenes obliquely obovoid-globose, without apical projection.

Genus: ONOPORDUM
Including: Sects. RECURVATA, PSEUDOCARLINA, ECHINATA


General description:- Biennials.

Stems:- Spinose-winged, or absent.

Leaves:- Spinose-dentate, pinnatifid to pinnatisect or almost pinnate, rarely subentire.

Flowers:- Capitula globose to ovoid. Involucral bracts in several rows, leathery (coriaceous), densely overlapping (imbricate) at least near the base, spine tipped, glabrous to puberulent, sometimes glandular. Receptacle glabrous, with deep pits having dentate margins. Florets reddish-purple, rarely pink or white; corolla-tube slender; limb actinomorphic or pouch-shaped (saccate). Anthers with awl-shaped (subulate) apical appendages.

Fruit:- Achenes, 4-6 mm, subtetragonal, 4- to 5-ribbed, glabrous, dull; pappus-hairs scabrid or plumose, united into a ring at base, deciduous.

Key features:-
1) Herb, often woody at base.
2) Leaves spiny.
3) Pappus not of plumose hairs, sometimes absent.
4) Receptacle without scales or setae.

All species grow in rocky or stony ground, roadsides, waste places and similar dry, open habitats.

Descriptions apply to middle cauline leaves. The 2 outermost rows of bracts are referred to as outer bracts, the next 2-4 rows as middle bracts, followed by 1-2 rows of inner bracts, which are always erect, thinner and more obviously with a minute saw-toothed margin (serrulate). The descriptions apply to the middle bracts, unless otherwise indicated.

Sect. RECURVATA

General description:- Plant with unicellular hairs. 

Leaves:- Not reticulately veined beneath.

Flowers:-
Involucral bracts wide, flat, acuminate, shorter than florets, the outer and lower middle usually strongly deflexed in the apical 1/2-2/3. Corolla-lobes glandular.

Fruit:- Pappus-hairs scabrid or shortly plumose.

Sect. PSEUDOCARLINA

General description:- Plant with long, appressed unicellular hairs.

Leaves:- Not reticulately veined beneath.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts flat, shorter than the florets, the outer and middle widening into a deflexed, triangular-acuminate, fimbriate-spinose apex. Corolla-lobes eglandular.

Sect. ECHINATA

General description:-
Plant with multicellular or unicellular hairs.

Leaves:- Not reticulately veined beneath.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts
spoon-shaped (cochleariform) or ovate-lanceolate, abruptly or gradually narrowing into long, rigid, more or less radiate, ending in a rigid sharp (pungent) processes longer or shorter than florets. Corolla-lobes glandular.

Fruit:- Pappus-hairs with a rough surface (scabrid).

Genus: PALLENIS

General description:- Annual to biennial herbs.

Stems:- Leafy.

Flowers:- Capitula medium, terminating the branches. Involucral bracts in 2-3 rows. Receptacle convex, with scales. Ligulate florets in 2 rows, female, yellow tubular florets numerous, the tube compressed and sometimes with 1-2 narrow wings.

Fruit:- Achenes, outer  flat, winged; inner slightly compressed, not or scarcely winged; pappus of numerous short hyaline scales.

Key features:-
1)
Corolla-tube of inner florets compressed and sometimes winged.
2) Outer achenes flat, winged.

Genus: PHAGNALON

General description:- Dwarf shrubs.

Leaves:- Simple, alternate; margins entire, erose or remotely toothed.

Flowers:- Capitula usually solitary at the ends of branches. Involucral bracts imbricate, in up to 5 rows. Receptacle flat; scales absent. Florets yellowish, all tubular, the outer female, the inner hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Achenes cylindrical, somewhat compressed or angled, unbeaked, usually hairy. Pappus-hairs in 1-2 rows, simple, free.

Key features:-
1) Capitula solitary or in small clusters at ends of branches.
2) Involucral bracts entirely scarious or coriaceous.
3) Achenes glabrous.
4) Plant pubescent to tomentose or lanate.

Genus: PICNOMON

General description:-
Spiny, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely annuals.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire to pinnatisect, with spinulose margin or upper surface and usually spiny teeth or lobes.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts imbricate, without vittae, with a recurved, pinnate, spinose apical appendage. Receptacular scales numerous, setaceous. Florets hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, florets purple. Anthers with basal appendages 03-15 mm.

Fruit:- Achenes obovoid-oblong, compressed, the truncate apex indistinctly marginate and with a rounded central projection; pappus of several rows of softly feathered bristly hairs (plumose setae), the inner not expanded at the apex, often flattened, lanceolate and fringed with hairs (ciliate) towards apex, the pappus of the outermost florets often with fewer, simple setae.

Key features:-
1) Leaves green above.
2) Achenes oblong, with apical projection.
3) Involucral bracts with deflexed, pinnate apical spine.

Genus: PICRIS
Including: Sect. PICRIS

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs with rigid hairs, most of which have 2-4 small, hooked branches at the apex, sometimes also with spines.

Stem:- Usually solitary, branched.

Leaves:- Sinuate-dentate to pinnatisect; cauline often more or less amplexicaul.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in several imbricate rows. Receptacle pitted, without scales. Ligules yellow, the outer often with a reddish stripe on outer face.

Fruit:- Achenes transversely muricate between the ribs, usually narrowed at apex or beaked; pappus of 2 rows of deciduous hairs, the inner plumose, the outer plumose or simple, the outer achenes rarely with short scarious pappus.

1) Achenes not compressed.
2)
Pappus of 2 rows of deciduous hairs.
3) Plant hispid.
4) Spines on leaves bulbous based.

Sect. PICRIS

Flowers:- Outer involucral bracts linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, similar to inner

Genus: PTILOSTEMON

General description:- Unarmed dwarf shrubs or spiny herbs.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire to pinnatifid, usually leathery (coriaceous), almost hairsless (subglabrous) above, unarmed or with stout marginal spines.

Flowers:- Involucral bracts overlapping (imbricate), rarely with vittae, the apex usually long, rigid, patent, ending in a rigid sharp (pungent) spine, rarely spinulose. Receptacular scales numerous, bristly (setaceous). Florets hermaphrodite, purple, rarely white. Anthers with basal appendages 2-4 mm.

Measurements of the diameter of the involucre refer to the middle of the capitulum excluding the patent apices of the bracts.

Fruit:- Achenes obliquely obovoid, usually scarcely compressed, smooth, woody, the truncate apex indistinctly marginate; pappus-hairs in several rows, plumose, subequal, united (connate) at the base, deciduous, often fewer and simple in the outermost florets.

Key features:-
1) Pappus-hairs with branches much shorter than the hair (plumose);
2) Achenes obliquely obovoid, scarcely compressed, with a slight margin and no central projection at apex.

Genus; PULICARIA

General description:- Perennial, rarely biennial herbs or small shrubs.

Leaves:- Simple, alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in a corymbose or paniculate inflorescence. Involucral bracts imbricate, in many rows. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, without scales. Florets yellow, the outer ligulate, female, the ligule often very short. Tubular florets hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Achenes angled, not abruptly contracted below the pappus. Pappus-hairs simple, free, with an outer row of more or less connate scales.

Key features:-
1) Anthers with thread-like (filiform) appendages at their base.
2) Pappus of long hairs surrounded by a row of small, connate scales.

Genus: REICHARDIA

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs.

Stems:- Solitary to numerous, branched.

Leaves:- Entire to deeply pinnatisect, the cauline usually amplexicaul.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in several imbricate rows, at least the outer with scarious margins and often grading into the bracts of the peduncle. Receptacle without scales. Ligules yellow, the outer often with a reddish stripe on outer face, sometimes purplish at base.

Fruit:- Achenes at least the outer 4- to 5-angled and transversely rugose; inner achenes always paler, often smooth, probably often sterile; pappus of numerous rows of soft simple hairs.

Key features:-
1) Receptacle glabrous or with short hairs.
2) Achenes strongly rugosa.

Genus: RHAGADIOLUS

Stems:- Usually solitary, branched.

Leaves:- Dentate to pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer very short, the inner accrescent and patent in fruit. Receptacle flat, without scales. Ligules yellow.

Fruit:- Achenes narrowly cylindrical, the inner falling off early (caducous), the outer enclosed in the involucral bracts and long-persistent; pappus absent.

Key features:-
1) Leaves not spiny.
2) At least some achenes without pappus.
3) Outer involucral bracts enfolding achenes, patent and stellate in
fruit.

Genus: SANTOLINA

General description:- Aromatic dwarf shrubs.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire or dentate to pinnately lobed.

Flowers:-
Capitula small to medium, pedunculate. Involucral bracts in several rows, gradually increasing in length inwards. Receptacle slightly convex; scales present, half surrounding the achenes. Florets tubular, usually all hermaphrodite, yellow to whitish; tube often compressed and more or less winged, spurred at base or saccate and enclosing the apex of the achene.

Fruits:- Achenes oblong, weakly 3- to 4(-5)-angled; pappus absent. 

Genus: SCOLYMUS


General description:- Spiny annual to perennial herbs.

Stems:- Solitary, branched.

Leaves:- Pinnatifid.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in several rows. Ligules yellow.

Fruit:- Achenes dorsally compressed, tightly enclosed in and adnate to the ovate, slightly winged, deciduous receptacular scales; pappus absent or of a few rigid hairs.

Key features:-
1) Achenes shorter than involucre, straight, without hooks.
2) Leaves spiny.
3) Receptacle with scales which enfold the achenes.

All species occur on waste ground or in other dry, open habitats.

Genus; SCORZONERA
Including; Sects. LASIOSPORA, SCORZONERA


General description:- Usually perennial herbs.

Stems:- Solitary to several.

Leaves:- entire to pinnatisect.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary to many. Involucral bracts in several rows. Receptacle without scales. Ligules yellow, whitish or purplish.

Fruit:- Achenes usually cylindrical, not or obscurely beaked, without an annulus; pappus of several rows of hairs, usually all plumose at least at base, or the outermost (rarely all) simple and scabrid.

Key features:-
1) Pappus of more than 2 rows of persistent hairs.
2) Plant glabrous or softly hairy.
3)
Achenes without a corona; densely villous.

Sect. LASIOSPORA

Leaves:- Entire.

Fruit:- Achenes densely villous or lanate, with smooth ribs, without a tubular base.
Sect. SCORZONERA

Leaves:- Entire to dentate.

Fruit:- Achenes, glabrous (rarely spinulose), with smooth to lamellate ribs, without or with a short tubular base not more than 1/5 as long as the rest of the achene.

Genus: SENECIO
Including; Sects. JACOBAEA, SENECIO

One of the largest genera in the world, of cosmopolitan distribution.

General description:- Perennial. Herbs or dwarf shrubs with alternate leaves.

Leaves:- Not or scarcely sheathing at the base.

Flowers:- Capitula in corymbs, more rarely solitary; involucral bracts in one row, sometimes with shorter supplementary bracts at the base of the capitulum. Receptacle flat, without scales. Outer florets usually ligulate and female; inner florets hermaphrodite, tubular, yellow.

Fruit:- Achenes usually more or less cylindrical, ribbed; pappus usually present, of simple or denticulate (rarely sub-plumose) hairs.

Key features:-
1) Lower leaves not much smaller than those above; flat, not fleshy; deeply lobed.
2)
Capitula numerous, solitary or in corymbose inflorescences.
3) Stems not more than 2 mm diam.
4) Ligules yellow, less frequently reddish or lilac above.
5) Pappus of numerous hairs.
6) Petioles of basal and lower cauline leaves not or scarcely sheathing at base.

Sect. JACOBAEA

General description:- Perennial, rarely biennial herbs, subglabrous or more or less floccose.

Leaves:- Especially the cauline, more or less pinnatifid. Supplementary bracts usually more than 1\4 as long as the involucre.

Fruit:- Achenes subcylindrical, hairy or glabrous.

Sect. SENECIO

General description:- Annuals, glabrous or variously hairy.

Leaves:- Subentire to pinnatisect.

Flowers:- Involucre usually with small supplementary bracts.

Fruit:- Achenes subcylindrical, glabrous or hairy.

Genus: SILYBUM

General description:- Robust annual or biennial herbs.

Leaves:- Alternate, white-veined or variegated, with strongly spiny margin.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary. Involucre ovoid; bracts imbricate, the outer and middle with an apical, bristly-toothed (setose-dentate) appendage terminating (at least in the middle) in a long spine. Receptacle densely hairy. Florets all hermaphrodite. Corolla purple, deeply 5-fid, with a long tube.

Fruit:- Achenes obovoid-oblong, compressed, glabrous; pappus of white, rough (scabrid) hairs united below into a ring.

Key features:-
1) All achenes with a pappus; pappus-hairs in 1 row.
2) Leaves white-veined or variegated above.

Genus: SONCHUS

General description:-  Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely woody at the base.

Stems:- Usually solitary, usually branched.

Leaves:- Finely toothed or notched (denticulate) to pinnatisect, often spiny, the cauline stem-clasping (amplexicaul).

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in 3 imbricate rows. Receptacle without scales. Ligules yellow.

Fruit:- Achenes compressed, narrowed at both ends, with 1-4 ribs on each face, not beaked; pappus of 2 kinds of hairs: deciduous, rough solitary hairs and more or less persistent, softer hairs in fascicles.

Key features:-
1) Receptacle without scales.
2) Achenes compressed.
3) Spines on leaves not bulbous based.
4)
Pappus of a few scabrid deciduous hairs and persistent softer hairs in fascicles.
5) Involucral. bracts without a scarious margin.

Genus: STAEHELINA

General description:- Small tufted (caespitose) shrubs.

Leaves:- Alternate, often crowded in rosettes near apices of branches, entire or with 3 or more lobes (pinnatifid), divisions extending from about a quarter to half-way towards the midrib, leathery (coriaceous).

Flowers:- Capitula in terminal corymbose cymes, rarely solitary. Involucre more or less cylindrical; bracts overlapping (imbricate), unequal, oblong to ovate, ending abruptly in a sharp point (mucronate). Receptacular scales narrow, split into many lobes (multifid). Florets all hermaphrodite. Corolla pink to purple, tubular, 5-fid.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, more or less ribbed (costate), brown; pappus of one row of white hairs with branches about as long as the hair.

Key features:-
1) Leaves unarmed.
2) Pappus-hairs with branches about as long as the hair.
3) Achenes oblong, ribbed.

Genus: SYMPHYOTRICHUM

General description:- Herbs, usually perennial.

Leaves:- Alternate or basal, simple.

Flowers:- Capitula small to medium, solitary or in corymbs or panicles. Involucral bracts in 2 nearly equal rows, or overlapping (imbricate) in 3-several rows with the outer much shorter than the inner. Receptacle flat or convex. Florets, outer tongue-shaped (ligulate), female or sterile, in 1 row; ligules blue, violet, purple, pink or white, sometimes absent; inner tubular, hermaphrodite, yellow, often becoming purple.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, usually compressed, more or less hairy and often glandular. Pappus-hairs scabrid, whitish to yellowish or reddish, often unequal, in 1-2 indistinct rows.

Key features:-

1) Florets yellow or brownish.
2) Capitula in corymbs.
3) Involucral bracts mostly herbaceous.
4) Achenes hairy.
5)
Plant not tomentose or lanate.
6) Outer florets tubular, hermaphrodite.
7)
Pappus-hairs not plumose; in 2 or more rows.
8) Ligules in 1 row, not thread-like (filiform); shorter than involucre.
9) Inflorescence rising from the centre of the rosette on a leafless stalk (scapose).
10) Plant glabrous.
11) Leaves fleshy.

Genus: TAGETES

General description:-
Aromatic annual herbs.

Leaves:- Pinnatifid, glandular-punctate, mostly opposite.

Flowers:- Capitula medium. Involucral bracts 5-10, in one row, connate nearly to apex. Receptacle flat, small, without scales. Outer florets ligulate, female; inner florets tubular, hermaphrodite.

Fruit:- Achenes linear, 4-angled, slightly compressed, pubescent. Pappus of 5-10 membranous, often connate scales, one or more of them awned.

Key features:-
1)
Leaves pinnatisect.
2) Involucral bracts connate almost to the apex; ligules 3-4.

Genus: TANACETUM
Including: Sect. TANACETUM


General description:-
Annuals or herbaceous perennials, often aromatic.

Leaves:- Pinnately divided, alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula in terminal corymbs, rarely solitary, with or without ligulate florets. Involucral bracts in 3 rows. Receptacle convex to subglobose, usually punctate-tuberculate. Outer florets ligulate, usually female, white or yellow, or tubular, hermaphrodite or female, yellow. Inner florets hermaphrodite, tubular.

Fruit:- Achenes all similar, usually 3- to 10-ribbed, without epicarpic mucilaginous cells or vallecular secretory canals, very rarely with secretory lacunae. Pappus usually a corona. 

Sect. TANACETUM. Ligules yellow or absent. Achenes without secretory lacunae.

Genus: TARAXACUM

General description:-
Perennial herbs with a tap-root.

Stems:-
Few to many, simple.

Leaves:- All basal, entire to laciniate-dentate or lobed.

Flowers:- Capitulum solitary. often flat-topped. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, glabrous or ciliate; inner erect, more or less linear; outer shorter, usually wider, often with paler margins, sometimes with a small lump (callosed) or small appendage (corniculate) just below the apex. Receptacle more or less flat, without scales. Ligules usually yellow, often with a darker stripe beneath.

Fruit:- Achenes fusiform to oblanceolate, often spinulose near apex, usually with a slender beak and a more or less clearly demarcated swollen region (cone) between beak and body. Pappus of many rows of simple, rough, usually white hairs.

Key features:-
1) Pappus entirely of simple hairs.
2) Scapes unbranched, usually without bracts.
3) Achenes usually muricate above.

Most species flower in spring or early summer; they sometimes also have a secondary flowering in autumn but then lack many of their diagnostic characters. A few species are mainly if not entirely autumn-flowering and for these this peculiarity is noted in the descriptions. Ripe achenes are necessary for the determination of the species.

Genus: TOLPIS

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs.

Stems:- Solitary to many, usually branched.

Leaves:- Entire to dentate or lobed.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in 2-3 rows. Receptacle flat, pitted, without scales. Ligules yellow or the inner purplish-brown, usually turning greenish when dry.

Fruit:- Achenes 05-4 mm, with 6-8(-10) ribs, not narrowed or beaked above, uniform or of 2 kinds; pappus of short or long rigid hairs, or a mixture of the two, the hairs sometimes expanded at the base.

Key features:-
1) Achenes  05-4 mm. without a collar of scales, not villous.
2) Involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer much shorter than the inner.
3) At least some pappus-hairs thickened at base.
4) Ligules yellow, usually turning greenish on drying.
5) Pappus of rigid hairs somewhat expanded at base.

Genus: TRAGOPOGON

General description:- Annual, biennial or perennial herbs.

Stems:- Usually solitary, simple or sparingly branched.

Leaves:- Linear-lanceolate to linear, entire, the cauline sheathing.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or few. Involucral bracts in 1 row. Receptacle without scales. Ligules yellow or purplish.

Fruit:- Achenes spindle-shaped (fusiform), with 5-10 more or less distinct ribs, usually beaked, the beak usually with an annulus separating it from the pappus; pappus of 1 row of mostly feathery (plumose) hairs, or the outer achenes with a pappus of 1 row of  rigid hairs that are rough to the touch (scabrid).

Key features:-
1) Leaves entire.
2) Involucral bracts in 2 or more rows.
3) Pappus of 1 row of hairs.

Genus: TRIPOLIUM

General description:- Herbs, usually perennial.

Leaves:- Alternate or basal, simple.

Flowers:- Capitula small to medium, solitary or in corymbs or panicles. Involucral bracts in 2 nearly equal rows, or imbricate in 3-several rows with the outer much shorter than the inner. Receptacle flat or convex. Outer florets ligulate, female or sterile, in 1 row; ligules blue, violet, purple, pink or white, sometimes absent. Inner florets tubular, hermaphrodite, yellow, often becoming purple.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, usually compressed, more or less hairy and often glandular. Pappus-hairs scabrid, whitish to yellowish or reddish, often unequal, in 1-2 indistinct rows.

Many species have been introduced into cultivation in Europe from North America. From European gardens some of the original introductions and their accidental or deliberately raised hybrids have escaped, and continue to do so. Such escapes have long been established on river-banks or in fens, where they are fully naturalized and may form quite uniform populations, though not necessarily easily matched with North American species. Populations on waste ground, railway-banks etc. are often much more variable and here the delimitation of taxa is necessarily arbitrary and the identification of specimens sometimes impossible.


1) Capitula in corymbs or panicles.
2) Involucral bracts mostly herbaceous.
3) Achenes hairy.
4)
Plant glabrous.
5) Outer florets tubular, hermaphrodite.
6)
Pappus-hairs in 2 or more rows, not plumose.
7) Ligules not yellow, in 1 row, not filiform, shorter than the involucre.
8) Scapose.
9) Leaves fleshy. 

Genus: TUSSILAGO


General description:- Perennial herbs.

Leaves:- All basal.

Scapes:- Numerous, each with one medium capitulum.

Flower:- Involucral bracts in 1 row. Receptacle slightly convex, without scales. Ligulate florets in many rows, female, yellow; tubular florets few, functionally male.

Fruit:- Achenes narrowly cylindrical, with 5 ribs, truncate at the apex; pappus-hairs numerous, in 1 row, denticulate.

1) Capitula with numerous florets, more than one ligulate.
2) Scapes with numerous purplish scales.
3) Ligules in several rows.

Genus: TYRIMNUS

General description:- Slender, erect, lanate annual or biennial herbs.

Leaves:- alternate.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary, on long, naked peduncles. Involucre hemispherical; involucral bracts overlapping like tiles (imbricate), appressed, entire, ending abruptly in a sharp point (mucronate-spinose). Receptacular scales numerous, bristly (setaceous). Inner florets hermaphrodite; outer florets usually sterile. Corolla purplish-pink, rarely white, regularly 5-fid, with a short tube.

Fruit:- Achenes oblong, tetragonal, compressed, glabrous; pappus of many rows of white hairs which are minutely scabrid distally.

1) Receptacle with scales.
2) Outer florets usually sterile. 

Genus: UROSPERMUM
Including: Sect. HELMINTIA

General description:- Annual to perennial herbs with rigid hairs, most of which have 2-4 small, hooked branches at the apex, sometimes also with spines.

Stems:- Usually solitary, usually branched.

Leaves:- Sinuate-dentate to pinnatisect; cauline often more or less amplexicaul.

Flowers:- Capitula few to numerous. Involucral bracts in several imbricate rows. Receptacle pitted, without scales. Ligules yellow, the outer often with a reddish stripe on outer face.

Fruit:- Achenes transversely muricate
between the ribs, usually narrowed at the apex or beaked; pappus of 2 rows of deciduous hairs, the inner softly feathered (plumose), the outer plumose or simple, the outer achenes rarely with short thin and dry (scarious) pappus.

Key features:-
1) Achenes not compressed.
2) Spines on leaves bulbous based.
3) Pappus of 2 rows of deciduous hairs.
4) Plant hispid.

Sect. HELMINTIA.

Outer involucral bracts ovate to ovate-lanceolate, wider than inner.

Genus: XANTHIUM

General description:- Annual herbs.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire or variously lobed.

Flowers:- Capitula solitary or in axillary clusters, unisexual, the male above the female. Male capitula subglobose; involucral bracts in 1 row; receptacle cylindrical, with scales; florets numerous; stamens 5; anthers free and hooked at apex; filaments connate; style and ovary rudimentary. Female capitula ovoid; involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer small, free, the inner connate, leathery (coriaceous), prickly, ending in 2 (rarely 1) beaks and forming a 2-locular structure containing 2 florets; corolla absent; styles exserted through a hole on the inside of the beak near its base.

Fruit:- Achenes ovoid; pappus absent.

Key features:-
1) All leaves alternate or basal.
2) Capitula unisexual.
3) With all flowers bisexual or with male and female flowers on the same plant (monoecious).

Genus; XERANTHEMUM

General description:- Erect annuals.

Leaves:- Alternate, entire, not spiny.

Flowers:- Capitula terminal, solitary, stalked (pedunculate). Receptacular scales narrow, acute, simple, shorter than the florets. Involucre hemispherical to ovoid; bracts thin and dry (scarious), the outermost short, brown, the intermediate similar but longer, overlapping like tiles (imbricate), the innermost coloured simulating ligules. Outermost florets sterile, with unequally 5-lobed corolla, the remainder hermaphrodite, with equally and very shortly 5-lobed corolla.

Fruits:- Achenes obovoid, sericeous-; pappus of 5-15 unequal, acuminate scales.

Key features:-
1) Leaves unarmed.
2) At least the inner involucral bracts with an apical appendage.
3) Inner involucral bracts white or pink, simulating ligules.
4)
Pappus without plumose hairs.