General description:- Herbs or very rarely small shrubs, usually with latex.

Leaves:- Usually alternate, without stipules (exstipulate).

Flowers:- Hermaphrodite. Calyx 3- to 5-fid. Corolla more or less deeply lobed;
lobes meeting exactly without overlapping (valvate). Stamens free or joined margin
to margin (connate). Disc sometimes present. Style 1; stigmas 2-5. Ovary inferior,
2-5 celled (2- to 5-locular).

Fruit:- Capsule splitting open to release the seeds (dehiscing) by pores, valves or
irregularly, rarely not splitting open to release their seeds (indehiscent). Seeds


General description:-  Perennial herbs with simple leaves.

Flowers:- Inflorescence simple or branched. Corolla deeply divided into narrow
lobes connate only at the base, blue. Stigmas 3.

Fruit:- Capsule cylindrical or ovoid, opening by 3 apical pores.

Genus: CAMPANULA Including: Sect. RANUNCULUS

General description:- Herbs.

Flowers:- Inflorescence 1- to many-flowered. Ovary usually obconical or oblong-
obconical. Calyx-teeth often longer than the ovary, with or without appendages
between the teeth. Corolla bell-shaped (campanulate), tubular, funnel-shaped
(infundibuliform) or with a very short tube and spreading lobes (rotate), usually blue,
purple or lilac. Ovary 3- to 5-locular. Style without a disc at its base.

Fruit:- Capsule pendent or erect, dehiscing by pores or valves, rarely indehiscent.

Key features:-
1) Leaves entire, with rounded or saw-toothed margins (crenate or serrate).
2) Flowers distinctly stalked (pedicellate), solitary or in small clusters in spike-like
(spicate) or  racemose inflorescences.
3) Corolla-tube more than 3 mm wide.
4) Style not or little longer than corolla.
5) Capsule dehiscing by lateral pores, very rarely indehiscent.

The corolla is blue to violet, rarely white, in all species.


Flower:- Calyx without appendages.

Fruit:- Capsule dehiscing by lateral or subapical pores or valves.


Flowers:- In racemes or panicles. Calyx divided at the tip into five (5-fid). Corolla 5-
fid, usually with a very short tube and spreading lobes (rotate) or broadly bell-
shaped (campanulate). Stamens 5; filaments not or scarcely dilated at base;
anthers free. Ovary cylindrical, many times longer than wide. Style minutely hairy
(puberulent); stigmas 3.

Fruit:- Capsule dehiscing by 3 upward-curving valves near the apex.

Key features:-
1) Corolla lobed for not more than its length.
2) Ovary and capsule cylindrical.

All species are found mainly in cultivated fields and other dry, open habitats.


Flowers:- In panicles. Calyx deeply 5-fid. Corolla infundibuliform, divided nearly to
the base into 5 linear lobes. Stamens 5; filaments dilated at base; anthers free.
Ovary 3-locular. Style exserted, glabrous; stigma large, capitate.

Fruit:- Capsule dehiscing by 3 pores in the middle.

Key features:-
1) Flowers actinomorphic;
2) Filaments free, though anthers sometimes connate.


Flowers:- Solitary, axillary or terminal, long-pedicellate. Calyx 5-fid. Corolla-tube
not or scarcely split dorsally; limb 2-lipped, the upper 2 lobes rather smaller than
the 3 lower. Stamens 5; anthers unequal, the 2 smaller with minute bristles
(setulose) at apex. Style slender; stigmas 2.

Fruit:- Capsule dehiscing by 2 apical valves.

Key features:-
1) Corolla-tube not or scarcely split dorsally.